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Chairman of the Committee on Cultural Relations with the American Republics,


The SIGN SEMINARS (third annual)

to be held

in the summer of 1943, July and August,




Expenses will range from three hundred to five hundred dollars, depending upon the class of accommodations in Havana and Mexico City.

The co-operation of civil and ecclesiastical authorities has been assured.

Monsignor Barry and the Editors of THE SIGN have designated the Rev. Dr. Joseph F. Thorning, Professor of Sociology at Mount St. Mary’s Col- lege, Emmitsburg, Maryland, and Professor Joseph S. Cardinale of the Department of Romance Languages, St. John’s University, to be Directors of the Seminars.

All information about the Seminars should be sought at the headquarters of THE SIGN, Union City, New Jersey. Applications will be considered in order. Application blanks may be secured at THE SIGN office. All applications should be on file before June 1. The first group for both universities will leave in the first week of June, while the second group is scheduled to depart during the first week in July. Early application is advisable.

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“WD | in Focus By JOHN S. KENNEDY

The Last of Summer by Kate O’Brien

(apricornia by Xavier Herbert

First Harvest by Vladimir Pozner

Winter’s Tales by Isak Dinesen

The Fountainhead by Ayn Rand

Yesterday's Children by LaMar Warrick

Tales from the Rectory by Francis Clement Kelley

The Last of Summer by Kate O’Brien

> That the growth and refinement of Kate O’Brien’s unusual technical skill as a novelist continue is evi- denced by her newest work. ‘The form, the pace, and the power of this novel are remarkable. All the greater then is the pity that the substance of the story is of light consequence. The mechanics are admirable; what they are brought to bear on is disappointing. This is the first of Miss O’Brien’s works to have a rather hollow ring.

The scene is Ireland in the late summer of 1939. A young actress whose father was Irish and whose mother was French, comes, uninvited and unexpected, to visit the home of her father’s family. He had left Ireland as a young man and had never returned. There is something of a mystery as to the reason for this. The present head of the family is the widow of one of this man’s brothers. She has three children. Two of them know her for what she is, a sly and unscrupulous tyrant. The third, the handsome heir, is her slave and idolator. The mother is vastly disturbed by the girl’s coming, not only because she is a reminder of past humiliation, but also because she is independent, an outsider, and therefore an enemy. The girl and the heir fall in love and become engaged. The mother masks her dismay, sets to work to crush this threat to her absolute power, and succeeds.

The bare outline of the story does not do justice to Miss O’Brien’s insight into character and her mas- tery in creating and handling it. It does not suggest the practiced ease with which, for the most part, the narrative is managed. It takes no note of the wit and the wisdom that crackle and glow throughout, light- ing and warming the mind and heart of the reader.

At the same time, one cannot help taking exception to the too facile denouement. Moreover, the author is at pains to underscore the story's quasi-allegorical nature. Its secondary purpose, that of pointing a moral about Ireland’s relation to the modern world, comes between the reader and the work, just as the radio announcer’s heavily accented “explanation” of 4 Beethoven symphony blights the beauty of the music. (Doubleday, Doran, New York. $2.50)

Capricornia by Xavier Herbert

> Violence is the characteristic quality of this 649- page extravaganza of Northern Australia. Its story tareens like a drunkard, alternately hilarious, som- ber, and bawdy. The wholesale carnage in its thirty- (Continued on last page)



A new translation from the original Latin, to which are added practical reflections and prayers

No. 2000/03 592 pages Pocket-size No. 2000/02—Black Imitation Leather—gold edges $1.50

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red under gold edges, hand tooled rolled, gold border on inside back and front cover, French band, silk bookmark $3.00


By THOMAS A KEMPIS A timeless arsenal of moral

argument and spiritual conso- lation

432 pages _ Pocket-size

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No. 2100/02

6-43 THE SIGN—Book Dept.—Monastery Place, Union City, N. J.

Pl a COPIES sivie No......ss0e teat. ease naw me copy y.



> John C. O’Brien, a Washington cor- respondent for THE Sicen, and one of the Capital’s ablest political analysts, contrib- utes his timely The , 1 Battle Against Infla- (ae - tion to this issue. Mr. | O’Brien has worked on the New York Herald

Tribune and the New York World. At pres- ent he is head of the Washington Bureau of the Philadelphia Inquirer. He is author of The American Politician, a biography

of Senator Robert F. Wagner.

> Dr. Waclaw Bitner is a member of a family which for centuries has fought in the defense of Poland. During the pres- ent war, Dr. Bitner escaped with his eldest son to France, where both joined the Polish Army, from which Dr. Bitner is now on leave. Before the double in- vasion of Poland, he served in the Polish Parliament as a Warsaw deputy. At present he is director of the Polish Cath- olic Press Agency in New York. His military and political backgrounds qual- ify him to offer in Poland Crucified an informative and authoritative discussion of the Polish-Russian question.

Charles Morrow Wilson studied agri- culture at the University of Arkansas and at Oxford. Since 1937 he has been travel- ing and studying in Latin American countries. As a result he has written several books on Latin American subjects as well as articles in the leading Ameri- can magazines. In. Mosquito Fighter he tells the story of Joseph LePrince, who fought such a valiant and successful bat- tle against the malaria-bearing mosquito in Cuba during the Spanish-American War and in Panama at the time of the construction of the Panama Canal. Colo- nel LePrince is still carrying on his work in this country.

> Jerry Cotter, author, playwright, and critic, provides monthly one of the most popular departments of the magazine. His reviews are fol- ;

lowed eagerly by a large circle of readers as a norm for deciding which plays and movies | to see—and which to bypass. This month he announces his selec- tion of the best drama of the season. The award goes to The Patriots, an exceptionally fine historical study by Sidney Kingsley.


Monastery Place, Union City, N. J.


REV. RALPH GORMAN, C.P. REV. ALFRED DUFFY, C.P, Managing Editor Associate Editor

REV. EMMANUEL TRAINOR, C.P., Mission Procurator


ARTICLES Ry ne ee ee Waclaw Bitner 647 MExico’s PEACEFUL COUNTERREVOLUTION...John W. White 652 THE BATTLE AGAINST INFLATION.......... John C. O’Brien 656 MosQuiTo FIGHTER............... Charles Morrow Wilson 666 WomMeEN aT WAR............... A Catholic WAAC Officer 676 VRROOMCA'’S VEE... ccs cscccis Bonaventure Griffiths, C.P. 681


THE Pornt or ViEw....... A sey ..Michael Foster 660 PAM AND THE PROFESSOR. . Cheistins Whiting Parmenter 662 Tup FINar es a és « Guddtens cucu eee Y. Young 690

EDITORIALS A Lecton or ToLERANCE.............Ralph Gorman, C.P. 643 CURRENT Fact AND COMMENT............-+..- naveneepane Mae


A SHepuerp ReJorns His Fitock............Sr. Jane Marie 672 LETTER FROM BisHop O’GARA............... JAB US fy >

Pere Ronald Norris, C.P. 674

FEATURES—DEPARTMENTS FICTION IN Focus............+...++++--John S, Kennedy 641

PERSONAL MENTION....... D6 Wide UTE aed i ee Woman To WoMAN....... ssseeeeees-.-Katherine Burton 671 STACE AND SCREEN................ .+++++..-Jerry Cotter 678 SIGN-PosT: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS...........eeeeeee04 683 RS er eee phe deen nih Anne dina 40 Serre THE QUICKENER—Poem................ Clifford J. Laube 693 Dear Hour—Poem...... seeeeeeeeeee+-Eleanor Downing 693

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Cover photo from Piaget, St. Louis

Vol. 22 + Na. Il

THE SIGN. monthly publication, is owned, edited, and published at UNION CITY, N. J., by the Passionist Fathers. ‘Legal Title—Passionist Missions, Inc.) Subscription price $2.00 per pil in advance; single~ copies, "20c. Canada, $2.00 per year; Foreign, $2.50 per year. e All checks and m orders should made able = THE SIGN. All a remittances should be registered. e Manu pts ‘s ould be addressed to ing Editor. They should be typewritten, and accompanied by euarn gos tage. All sceep tising inquiries should be agrepeanre, athe “lation Mana ager. ‘A wblication. 2,3 Vapplication. Requests a reulat sing rates on a cation. jue: for Henewale, 1 peecontingance, Change of Address should sent in at least two we ke ire to

wee ore ey a into effect. OLD and the ‘New address should always be given. Phone—Union 7-6892. Ente Clase haattor Septem 20, 1921, at the Post Hi Union City, N. J. onier the act of 1879. ey tig for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Par. re toa ee 458. Act of 28, 1925. All the contents of THE SIGN are it. The Ed must ‘obtained for reprint of any entire contribs ation. SIGN is ind in the Catholic * BStiodical | Index. Copyright by THE PASSIONIST MISSIONS, INC., 1943



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THERE is increasing evidence lately of a renewed upsurge of anti-Catholicism. We Catholics are hated in certain quarters with more than the usual vehe- mence. In fact, matters have reached a point where the attack on us has assumed the proportions of an open campaign. It is being conducted on the radio, in the press, in magazines, and in books.

For the most part this attack is coming from Leftists who parade under the title of “liberals.” As a matter of fact they are narrowminded, bigoted, and un- ashamed illiberals. One of their chief characteristics is that they possess a digestive apparatus sufficiently strong to swallow and retain any form of dictatorship as long as it is served with the sauce of Leftist formulae.

THE Nazi attack on Russia in 1941 rescued these Leftists from the outer darkness into which they had been cast by the Hitler-Stalin Pact of 1939. Since that time their strategy has been to unite the world under their banner in an anti-Fascist crusade. Their con- quest of our American pseudoliberals was so rapid and complete that the latter are now ready to fall on their faces at the mere mention of Stalin’s name, and are prepared to gird on their armor and do battle at the slightest suspicion of any deviation to the Right.

It is part of the strategy of these “liberals” to brand Catholics as Fascists. One of our greatest offenses is that we favored General Franco in the civil war in Spain. Franco defeated the Reds with the help of the Germans and Italians; therefore Franco and National- ist Spain are Fascist! We are now engaged in fighting the Germans and Italians with Red help. It doesn’t follow that we are therefore Communists, but then, this is quite evidently not a matter of logic.

THE Spanish civil war was the tipoff for us Catholics —if we needed any. When the windows of Jewish shops in Berlin were broken by the Nazis, our “liber- als” screamed their protests, held mass meetings, signed petitions, and circulated resolutions calling on the civilized world to act. When Spanish Catholics were murdered by the tens of thousands in cold blood, for no other reason than that they were Catholics, our “liberals” were silent—and we have always heard that silence gives consent. We had always been inno- cent enough to think that anti-Catholicism is a crime as well as anti-Semitism.

In spite of the fact that the Popes have condemned

A Legion of Tolerance

Fascism and Nazism; in spite of the fact that the Papacy is the strongest moral bulwark in the world today against encroachments on the rights of the in- dividual; in spite of the fact that our American Cath- olic boys—out of all proportion to their numbers—are fighting and bleeding and dying on the battlefields of the world in the cause of human freedom, we Cath- olics are being referred to with a frequency that indi- cates concerted action, as Fascist-minded, as clerico- Fascists, and even as the one-fifth column.

‘THE campaign being waged against us varies from insinuations and innuendoes in magazines like Time, Life, and many others of wide circulation, to outright denunciations and appeals to fanaticism in “liberal” magazines like the New Republic. A writer in the lat- ter magazine recently advocated “an open, fighting opposition to reactionary Catholic pressure on office- holders, the press, the stage, the movies, to organized Catholic attempts to use a fanatically loyal and large- ly ignorant following to boycott and blackmail and coerce.”

Perhaps the trouble is that we Catholics have been too tolerant of “liberal” fanatics. Perhaps we have let them get away with this bigotry and fanaticism too long. We may have given them and others the im- pression that we accept their view that we are a sort of alien group, satisfied merely to be tolerated.

WEDDa good job in cleaning up the movies. Per- haps it's about time we took cognizance of the attack being made on us by certain radio commentators and magazines. We can write to the radio stations and sponsors who are responsible for the commentators who attack us. We have no obligation to listen to their programs nor to buy their goods. Let us tell them so.

Magazines and papers depend on circulation and advertising. We don't have to buy magazines that attack us, nor do we have to patronize companies that support such magazines with their advertising. Let us write and tell them so.

The Legion of Decency succeeded. It would seem that we now need a Legion of Tolerance, ~

Teaithe, ralph pon CP


Last month we had something to say about the cruel fate of Polish nationals transplanted to Russia. More re- cently Soviet treatment of Poles has become an interna- tional issue. This resulted from the Polish Govern- ment-in-Exile’s demand for an impartial investigation of the Nazis’ claim to have dis- covered the mass graves of about 10,000 Polish prison- ers of war. The Nazis say these were the victims of So- viet firing squads. Unfortunately, most accounts of the whole affair have ignored certain facts and imply, if they do not say so openly, that the question should never have been allowed to come up at the present time. Be this as it may, we would like at present to point out that the mystery, if it is a mystery, of the dis- appearance of thousands of Polish prisoners of war is not a new issue.

The prisoners were in Russia as the result of the in- vasion of Poland in 1939. Early in 1940 these prisoners were informed that they would be sent back to Poland and in April 1940 the evacuation of the camps began. But only a few were ever heard of again. Repeated ef- forts to discover their fate were unsuccessful. It must be remembered that all this occurred before the Nazi in- vasion of Russia. After that event the Polish Govern- ment-in-Exile made an alliance with Russia and began to form a Polish Army in the U, S. S. R. Naturally it was expected that the captured Polish war prisoners would be available for that army, but many of them never appeared. Repeated appeals to Stalin, Molotov, and other high Soviet officials were met with evasion. Chen came the claim of the Nazis that they had discov- ered the graves of these prisoners. Of course, this revela- tion was made for propaganda purposes and to stir up dissension in the ranks of the United Nations. But in view of all the facts in the case, grounds for more than 4 suspicion are present that another brutal Soviet crime has supplied ready-made material for Goebbels.

Unexplained Fate of Polish Prisoners

Wuue regrettable from the point of view of the prose- cution of the war, the Russian “suspension” of diplo- matic relations with the Polish Government-in-Exile

serves as another straw in

th ° d . di . Polish-Russian e wind indicating the

Diplomatic Break

trend of Russian diplomacy. Not content with rejecting the proposed investigation of the disappearance of Polish war prisoners, the Soviet note demands a new set-up in the exiled Polish Govern-

ment. These demands are (1) the removal of all “anti. Soviet” elements, and (2) the selection of officials who will have a more “realistic” point of view with regard to the Soviets.

In other words, Molotov’s note demands that the Polish Government-in-Exile be one that will agree with the Russian territorial demands made known some months ago. What else can Molotov and those for whom he speaks mean when he accuses the Polish Gov. ernment of trying to wrest from the Soviets “territorial concessions at the expense of the interests of the Soviet Ukraine, Soviet Byelo-Russia, and Soviet Lithuania.’ This clearly indicates that as far as Russia is concerned her postwar boundary in the West is already settled by her unilateral decision.

This territorial claim is the real crux of the question. The Soviets are not disturbed by the suspicion that they have murdered several thousand Polish soldiers but they are interested in laying plans to destroy the inde pendence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania as well as to absorb Eastern Poland, Bessarabia, and parts of Fin land. Already the Leftist and “liberal” stooge press in this country has taken up the defense of Russia’s pro posed grab as being something due to Russia and to be taken for granted. They are following the party line of being “realistic” and refuse to consider as a dastardly deed the Bolshevist plot to enslave millions of free, civilized peoples.

One thing is certain from all this. Before the war is ended, before victory is assured, Stalin is making his policy plain. He does not intend to stand by the prov- sions of the Atlantic Charter. He does not want any thing to do with the Four Freedoms or any other plans of the democracies except insofar as they may serve propaganda purposes. Just as his alliance with Hitler in 1939 served notice that he would pursue any policy dictated by self-interest, so now Stalin is making it clear that he is determined to win the war for Russia alone and for his own brand of Communism.

The lesson for Britain and America is evident. It is time for the leading democracies to clarify their own position in these matters and proclaim that they do not intend to abdicate their responsibilities and leave Stalin as the umpire of the fate of small European nations. Any other course will be a betrayal of the Christian and democratic cause.

At this crucial time, we are fortunate in being able to publish Dr. Waclaw Bitner’s Poland Crucified in this issue. His authoritative article reveals important facts not mentioned in the secular press.


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June, 1943

Ir is self-evident that fighting men in the field are worse than useless if not kept supplied with the food and equipment necessary for their military efficiency. They can do the fighting but someone else must produce and deliver the supplies. This is what gives the home front such an important part to play especially in modern warfare. If the sup- plies fail, the armed forces will fail and then will come defeat. This is all very elementary, yet we wonder if some really realize the simple logic of the situation. We wonder because we hear so much of labor troubles which disrupt production or threaten such disruption if demands are not met.

With full consciousness of the touchiness of the sub- ject, we feel that a few reflections on the matter are in order. It must also be understood that a criticism of certain abuses in labor circles is not a criticism of labor as such any more than a criticism of the abuses of capi- talism means a rejection of the whole capitalistic system.

The first thing to keep in mind is that the time of war should not be looked upon as an opportunity to push the special and selfish interests of either labor or capital. When millions of young men are being called to the colors with all that this implies it does seem only decent that those who remain on the industrial and other fronts at home should willingly contribute their best efforts to the national welfare without having their primary interest fixed on high wages or big profits.

What are we to think of strikes during war time? It is hard to see how strikes can be considered as anything but another form of sabotage. If we punish the sabotag- ing of a single machine, what of those who do much worse in tying up production in essential industries? This does not mean that labor is to be enslaved as in Germany and Russia and denied a hearing, but it does mean that the proper agencies should be utilized for adjudicating difficulties. It also means that if any one man or group of men wish to jeopardize the welfare of the whole country in order to maintain their own power or push their grievances they should be shown in no uncertain terms that such action is tantamount to treason.

Labor Relations and War Production

ANoTHER handicap to efficient and peaceful production is the senseless jurisdictional disputes between rival labor groups. Some of this trouble must be laid at the door of the National Labor Relations Board because of its administration of the Wagner Act. It is the inter- pretation of the Act, not the Act itself we criticize at present. Mr. John P. Frey, President of the Metal Trades Department of the A. F. of L., advocates the suspension of the application of the Wagner Act to labor relations during the period of ab- normal war conditions and we think he is right. To quote him: “We have an act of Congress that was passed as labor’s Magna Charta, an act that was intended to re- duce labor strife, being administered to stimulate strife of another form. Instead of management and labor con- tinually brawling, we now find rival labor movements constantly at one another’s throats. . . . It is an impos- sible situation for the employer in normal times. It is an

Disputes Between Labor Groups

impossible situation for the country in these war times.”

We repeat that we do not condemn the just claims of labor nor the organizations that protect labor's rights. Our words must be considered as a plea to remember that we are in a national emergency, that tremendous tasks must be done, that many will have to work under pressure and perhaps temporarily put up with some hardships until matters can be adjusted in an orderly and peaceful manner. They are also a plea to the work- ers not to forget the men in the armed forces and to keep the supplies flowing to them as the means of hastening the day of final victory.

Even self-interest should make evident the folly of the situation that seems headed for a showdown very soon. Labor strife and stoppage of work will not only destroy public confidence in labor organizations but will open the way for the passage of legislation that will curtail the freedom of working men.

Thank God the vast majority of our laborers are as loyal and generous as their fellow Americans who meet the enemy on land, on the sea, and in the air. Let these loyal Americans make their will felt.

THe United States Supreme Court has reversed itself and handed down a five to four decision declaring un- constitutional several laws passed by communities with the purpose of handicap- ping the religious work of the Witnesses of Jehovah. One can well appreciate the desire of cities and towns to restrict the activities of this noxious sect. With a blind and unreasoning fanaticism, Witnesses stir up strife wherever they go. Catholics especially are the object of their most vicious attacks and no lie about the Catholic Church is too big for them to swallow and spew forth in their pamphlets and on their phonograph records. Besides their religious bigotry, they are also possessed of un-Christian and un-American ideas of citizenship and patriotism.

Jehovah Witnesses and Supreme Court

Yet with all our disgust.at the practices of these be- nighted and deluded people, we feel the Supreme Court has acted rightly. Not all the venerable judges con- curred in the decision and these gave solid reasons for dissenting from the majority. Without in any way ap- proving the doctrines and the actions of the Witnesses of Jehovah, the majority decided that it was better to allow an abuse of freedom of speech and religion than to approve statutes that could be invoked later on against the legitimate activity of religious and secular organizations carrying on their work within the recog-. nized bounds of the guarantees of the Constitution.

It is precisely this attitude that we approve. Catholics are only too well aware from long experience of the danger to freedom hidden in measures that curtail free- dom. And so it is that as Americans and Catholics we welcome the decision of the Supreme Court as being another indication of its exercising its high prerogative of safeguarding the liberties enshrined in the Constitu- tion of the United States. Once more we repeat it is better to tolerate some abuse than to embark upon a course that may lead to our citizens’ having only that kind of freedom of speech and religion which law- makers think they ought to have.


For three years over a million and a half French pris- oners of war have been held in Germany. This number of male French nationals under German domination is being augmented constantly by others taken for labor in Nazi industry and defense. It is estimated that the Nazis at present control about three million Frenchmen who normally would be build- ing up the future population of France. Because of this disruption of family life, experts say that in the next twenty-five years the population will be reduced to 24,- 000,000 and consequently France will be eliminated as a major power. This is just what Hitler wants, but those interested in the survival of a strong French nation are expressing grave concern at the phenomenal drop in births already recorded.

In this matter, however, facts must be faced. Sad as the present prospect is, the French did not have to wait for the Germans to introduce race suicide. In 1876 there were 1,022,000 births in France; in 1939 only 614,000 births, while in this same year that marked the begin- ning of the present war the number of deaths totaled 643,000. If the French birth rate had equaled that of other European countries, France would have had a population of 110,000,000 instead of 41,000,000 in 1939. Other revealing figures on the population decline are: 53 per cent of the 12,804,887 French homes are child- less; 23 per cent have only one child; 13 per cent have two children; 6 per cent have three, and only 1 per cent have six or more.

The lesson is plain for all who want to understand. It is a lesson for our own country as well as for France. Will our people heed it? We have often opposed the practice of birth control on moral and _ religious grounds, but these are brushed aside by its advocates as having no application in our civilized age. This point we shall not argue now but merely ask these proponents of the “new morality” how they expect a nation to sur- vive while practicing progressive suicide? Perhaps they are not interested in the national welfare of their own or any other country. Or they may declare they have no such program of national extinction in mind. In such case something more than protestation and wishful

Population and National Survival

thinking will be needed. They will have to get over the

fact that sex-indulgence without responsibility is essen- tially egocentric, and as Howard Becker says in Pro- grams of Postwar Reconstruction, “it seems unlikely that nationalistic enthusiasm can long counteract the egocentric tendencies of a civilized people.” It didn’t in France. It won't here. But what nationalistic enthusiasm cannot do, reverence for and observance of God’s law can. So we do get back to religion and morality after all.

In the second chapter of the Acts of the Apostles we read of the happenings that took place on the first Pente- cost Sunday. The graphic simplicity of St. Luke’s ac- count of what transpired on that day accentuates the re- markable change the coming of the Holy Spirit wrought in the disciples of Christ. Timid men hiding through fear became courageous champions of the word of Ged. “The; were all together in one place; and suddenly there came a sound from

The Indwelling ef the Hely Ghost

THE ‘f SIGN Heaven, as of a mighty wind coming, and it filled the whole house where they were sitting. And there peared to them parted tongues as it were of fire, and it sat upon every one of them; and they were all with the Holy Ghost, and they began to speak wi divers tongues, according as the Holy Ghost gave them to speak.”

When the news of this event was noised abroad in Jerusalem a crowd gathered and the first sermons were preached by the Galilean disciples of Jesus Christ Every listener heard his own language—Medes, Parthi ans, Elamites, Mesopotamians, Pamphilians, Phrygians, Cappadocians, Egyptians, Lybians, Arabians, and Ro mans. Naturally they were astonished. They wondered how Galileans had suddenly become linguists, speaking with idiomatic purity their own mother tongues. The vast majority were deeply impressed. But there were those who mocked, those whose illogical criticism of the word of God started a trend of conduct which still con tinues. On that occasion the critics said: ““These men are full of new wine.” To which St. Peter replied; “These are not drunk, as you suppose, seeing it is but the third hour of the day.”

This simple rebuttal was accepted by the far greater number in the audience, who listened with rapt atten tion to St. Peter’s sermon, and at its conclusion about gooo were baptized.

Inspired by the Holy Ghost the Church of Christ has been true to its mission. It has fulfilled in every age the solemn commission given to it by its founder: “Go ye into the whole world, and preach the gospel to every creature.” There have been critics of the Church in every age. Her mission has been at turns derided, scorned, persecuted, and flatly rejected. Yet it has been accepted, cherished, loved, and lived by countless mil- lions through the ages. No other organization has weathered the opposition set against it as well as the Church of Christ.

Human history is replete with testimony of the peren- nial vitality of the Church. And when present-day events become historical. lore, the Church will have arisen to new life in Germany, Russia, Poland, where the feeble efforts of puny men sought to combat the divine life engendered by the living indwelling of the Holy Ghost. The promise of Jesus Christ made to His apostles has been long since verified: “The Para- clete, the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, He will teach you all things, and bring all things to your mind, whatsoever I shall have said to you, .. . I will-ask the Father, and He shall give you another Paraclete that He may abide with you forever.”

Notice to Readers

In order to conform with government regulations which demand a decrease in the amount of paper used by magazines, THE SIGN is now being printed on paper of somewhat lighter weight than formerly. We wish to call the attention of our readers to the fact that the change affects only the weight of the paper. There are still the same number of pages and the same amount of reading matter in each issue of THE SIGN.

Our subscribers can help us to conserve paper and to eliminate needless expense by sending in their re newals immediately after receiving the first notice of expiration of subscription. Continued billings and no- tices are both expensive and wasteful.

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FUNDAMENTAL objective of the Polish people is their pro- found desire that Russia should be- come a truly Christian State, and in consistency with this objective the Poles have done everything possible to achieve the friendliest terms with Russia. In spite of all these attempts, the record shows Russia’s participa- tion in three separate partitions of Poland. The twentieth century finds Russia

continuing the same aggressive pol--

icy. In 1920 the Red Army invaded Poland, and it was only at the gates of Warsaw that the Polish Army de- feated the Bolsheviks. The “Battle of the Vistula” saved Poland, and per- haps the whole of Europe, from the onrush of Communism. Nevertheless, Poland not only signed the Treaty of Riga, but also concluded a pact of nonaggression with Russia. This pact was rendered worthless when,

A symbol of stricken Poland, this woman prays beside the ruins of her home. Her husband and children were killed

Poland Crucified


after Hitler’s attack on Poland, Rus- sia seized the opportunity to attack from the rear.

Following the occupation of East- ern Poland in 1939, Russia deported some two million Poles to the desert wastes of Siberia; they were left to their exile in the northern woods and marshlands. Somewhat later, Poland demonstrated that she was able to look toward the future, as well as the past, and came to terms with Russia in 1941. It is significant that Russia has taken an early op- portunity to abrogate that agreement with Poland.

For any real understanding of Polish-Russian relations, one must first know their historical back- ground, as well as appreciate the cul- tural and psychical differences which distinguish the two nations.

Poland, as a nation, has been eter- nally devoted to the principles of



freedom, and has always fought in defense of Christian ideals. The free- dom of the individual to his rights as a citizen was guaranteed in Po- land as early as the year 1430, by a charter which corresponds to the “habeas corpus” rights as pro- claimed in England in 1679.

When religious intolerance in Eu- rope led through persecution and inquisition to the ultimate murder and expulsion of Jews, Poland was practically their sole refuge; she alone enacted laws to establish re- ligious freedom within her territory. In 1269 King Boleslaw the Pious guaranteed to the Jews the protec- tion of their religion. These were later confirmed and clarified in the Code of 1365.

In 1432 King Wladyslaw War- nenczyk—the name was given to him after he had fallen in the Battle of Warna against the Mohammedans—


proclaimed an edict in which Po- land’s Orthodox Church was secured the same rights and privileges the Roman Catholic Church enjoyed. Politically, Poland’s progress fol- lowed the same direction. The first

Parliament was organized in 1462, and this body in turn contributed to the first great federation of Euro-

pean states. The memorable union of Poland, Lithuania, and Ruthenia was achieved in 1385, and the origi- nal acts signed at Krewo were subse- quently strengthened by other agree- ments until in 1569 the common Parliament of the three nations was consummated in the so-called Union of Lublin. The commonwealth thus achieved bears the combined em- Poland’s white eagle, Lith- uania’s mounted knight, and the ange! Michael of Ruthenia.

Poland's struggle for the preserva- Christian ideals has been demonstrated in her many battles against the onslaught of Asiatic hordes. The Mongols, Tartars, and lurks were almost perpetually at- tacking Europe under the banner of the Crescent. While the Western powers were able to develop their cultures in peace, to cultivate the arts and sciences, the span of five cen- turies found Poland continually be- set by the barbarians, and often pro- voked to large-scale warfare against the whole Mohammedan world.

Polish historians have estimated that during this period the Tartars accomplished nearly 10,000 separate incursions within Polish boundaries. [he first time the Poles managed a


tion. of

really crushing defeat of these ene- mies was in 1241, at the Battle of Lignica in Silesia. After many sub- sequent battles, such as those of Chocim, Cecora, and Zorawno, the

Poles, under the leadership of King Jan Sobieski, ultimately checked Mohammedan aggression at Vienna in 1683

These wars, lasting five centuries, found the Polish knights going into battle singing the anthem, “Mother

of God, Holy Virgin.” It was they who were profoundly responsible for Poland’s great attachment to Chris- tianity. And it was under the spir-

itual guidance of Christianity that was produced their characteristic veneration for the Blessed Virgin, who was, indeed, proclaimed Queen of the Polish Crown by the whole nation. These ideals still inspire Po- lish fighting forces today—the patri-

ots who fight for freedom and their Christian civilization with a faith comparable to that of the Crusaders.

If I have dwelt at some length on these military aspects of Polish his-