President Castro’s curt refusal to accept the sug- gestion of the United States for the arbitration of the different claims of American citizens in Venezuela is irritating and provocative, but it will not drive our Government into rash or unwise action. The difficulty in Ven- ezuelan affairs is primarily not political nor financial, but moral. Under the rule of President Castro (a man generally regarded as unscrupulous, fiery, and oblivious of consequences) Venezuela has come to be much in the situation of a man who owes all his neighbors money, and has encouraged instead of avoiding quarrels ; a,;man unwilling to make an agreemenfjby which claims against him may be ad}asted equally and fairly to all, but one who tries to secure advantage by dealing unfairly with the separate debtors. Such an individual would soon find his affairs in the hands of a sheriff ; but as there is no international sheriff, diplomacy, and, in the ultimate resort, threats of force, are the only methods of settlement. Last week an agreement was concluded between the German and English creditors who hold Venezuelan securities by which, with the consent of Venezuela, a large part of the receipts of its custom-houses is to be applied to meeting those debts. The bonds for these debts (some part of which, how- ever, is held by other countries besides Great Britain and Germany) amount to twenty-six millions of dollars, and under the agreement the debt is to be refunded at four per cent., and guaranteed by half of the duties collected at seven Venez- uelan custom-houses. Already thirty per cent. of the gross revenues of two custom- houses, those of Puerto Cabello and La Guayra, are designated to be set aside for meeting the debts judged valid by the Hague Tribunal. These two ports, therefore, are, at present at least, excluded from the new arrangement. ‘The United

The Venezuelan Complications

Te Outlook

SATURDAY, APRIL J, 1905

States cannot object to such a plan, for it is precisely what our Government has undertaken to do in Santo Domingo in a treaty which may yet receive the Sen- ate’s assent. Neither can we object to the announcement by Holland that if Dutch sailors now imprisoned in Ven- ezuela are not released, Holland will send war-ships and seize a Venezuelan port; for this is much like what we allowed Germany to do not long ago. The American claims against Venezuela (apart from whatever share of the bonded indebtedness of that country may be held by American citizens) are several, and differ in character. The most important grows out of the asphalt litigation. Technically, President Castro takes strong ground when he says that this litigation is now in the Venezue- lan courts, and that he cannot interfere any more than could the United States Government interfere if the French Government, for instance, called upon it to arbitrate legal disputes between Ameri- can and French citizens while the case was before the United States Supreme Court. This is only a surface view of the matter, however, for it is urged in this country that the New York and Ber- mudez Asphalt Company has practically suffered the confiscation of its property by the Venezuelan Governinent, which has put the asphalt lake into the hands of a receiver, and is taking out enormous quantities of asphalt, selling it, and ap- propriating the money under a pretense of legal expenses. If the facts are as stated, and if, under the direction of President Castro, a decision in the case is purposely delayed, the facts may as- sume such an aspect that the Americans whose property is thus being confiscated may rightfully appeal to their own Gov- ernment for justice. Among other Amer- ican claims are those of a steamship company, whose franchise, it is alleged,

was improperly declared forfeited, of a 759*

Se RRR a I

760*

newspaper correspondent who was, as asserted, wrongfully expelled from the country, and of another asphalt company. The whole affair illustrates forcibly the point made by President Roosevelt in his messages regarding Santo Domingo— namely, that if the United States is to allow other countries to seize ports for the collection of debts, or to support a demand for reparation on account of wrong done, it must take some measures that will prevent just American claims from being so subordinated to other for- eign claims of no greater weight or jus- tice that their payment or adjudication will be postponed indefinitely.

®

The question of Russian finance continues to be a matter of prime interest throughout Europe. Russia has so far made two foreign loans amounting to $400,000,000. It is estimated by competent observers that her expenses during the war have been about $20,000,000 a month, and as the war has now been going on about fourteen months, her expenditures, in- cluding initial expenses, have amounted to something like $325,000,000. This does not include the heavy losses of stores and supplies which the Russians have sustained in the recent campaign. The failure of the endeavor to raise an additional loan in France, where the sentiment is most friendly to Russia, has already been reported, and the fallacy of the impression that Russia was reaching the end of her resources already pointed out. There are probably few countries the resources of which are so great as those of Russia; and it is one of the great sins of her inefficient Government that they are so largely undeveloped. Russia has still, however, a large reserve of ready money upon which she can draw. Under the Russian law it is nec- essary to maintain a gold reserve of fifty per cent. of the face value of the ruble note up to an issue ofabout $300,000,000 ; after that limit has been passed any additional ‘issues must be secured by a gold reserve equal in amount. The present note circulation is about 830,- 000,000 rubles, and it is estimated that the Russian Treasury and the State

Russian Affairs

The Outlook

{1 April

banks contain a surplus that would afford a basis for carrying on the war for another year, with a balance of over $100,000,000 at the end of that time. There is also in reserve, to be used only in case of extreme necessity, what is called “the holy gold fund,” the accu- mulation of gold and jewels held by the Russian churches, which might be used in great national crises, It is estimated that the value of these accumulations is not less than $550,000,000; but this fund could not be touched until every other resource had been exhausted, and no Minister of Finance would think of using it until he had first tried every other expedient within his power. Na- tions have rarely been held back from embarking in war by lack of money, and if the war were popular in Russia there would be little likelihood that its end would be hastened by lack of funds. What gives possible importance to the financial situation is the wide and grow- ing unpopularity of the struggle among the Russians themselves. The Russian army continues slowly to retreat toward Harbin, and at the end of last week held a position about seventy-five miles north of Tie Pass and two hundred and twenty-five miles from Harbin. A base of supplies is to be established west of Harbin. Possibly General Linevich may try to hold a line running westward from Kirin to the railroad, or a line near the Sungari River ; but more probably he will withdraw to Harbin. Reports persisted last week that the Czar had become favorable to the discussion of peace measures. ®

There is probably no country in Europe in which the influence of women has been more deeply felt than France—an influence often exerted for evil, but many times exerted for good in public as in social and intellectual affairs; an influence which has given France the primacy among the nations in the arts of social intercourse. Not only has this been true of women of what are called the upper classes, but French women of what are called the middle classes have shown remarkable aptitude for executive work, for admin-

Rights of Women in France

1905]

istrative affairs, and for business. A very considerable part of the retail busi- ness of France is now carried on by women, and bookkeeping, the manage- ment of hotels, and many other occupa- tions are largely in their hands; and the capacity of the French woman for busi- ness is very generally recognized. In spite of these facts, the legal status of women is still determined by the Napo- leonic code, which was based, it has been said, on the assumption that women are either imbecile or incapable of transacting business.” As the law now stands, in spite of the fact that French women are to an unusual extent wage-earners, married women in that country have no control over their earn- ings, and, unless there is an expressed stipulation to the contrary, the estate of a wife passes absolutely into the hands of her husband, who can use it for any purpose he pleases. An unmarried woman controls her own property during her lifetime, although she cannot be- queath it away from her natural heirs ; but a married woman has no property rights which her husband is bound to respect. Until within a few months a married woman could not attest a deed or give evidence in a French court, or witness a marriage. Napoleon once declared: “There is one thing that is unknown in France, and that is, that a woman shall do as she pleases!” This statement of the great despiser of women is borne out by a case quoted by a cor- respondent of the Boston Transcript.” Not long ago a French writer, the author of a successful novel, negotiated with a German firm for its translation and pub- lication in Germany. When the con- tract was finally drawn up, it was signed, not by the author, but by her husband, although she was separated from him and was not living under his roof. If he had chosen, he could have refused to sign the contract, and the woman would have been without redress. There does not appear to be much interest in the question of suffrage for women in France, but there is a great and growing interest in gaining for married women the right to dispose of their own property. It is surprising that, in a country in which women are so influential, the laws are

The Week

761*

still in so barbaric a stage as regards their property rights. ®

Mr. Addicks is still outside

Tie ene the United States Senate,

but still has influence enough in the sorry State of Delaware to pre- vent its citizens from being represented in the Senate by any other man than himself. Thus he really succeeds in carrying out his boasted purpose of being a dog in a manger. The joint assembly of the Legislature held its final meeting on March 23, and on the final and forty-seventh ballot J. Edward Addicks received 15 votes; Colonel Henry A. DuPont, Regular Republican, 14 votes, and Willard Saulsbury, Demo- crat, 13 votes; 27 votes were necessary to a choice, so there was no election. There are, of course, devoted, upright, and abso- lutely honorable men in Delaware, who scorn to stoop to the methods employed by Addicks and his men in politics. But the investigation which Mr. Kennan made so thoroughly in Delaware for The Outlook two years ago, as well as information which comes to us from in- telligent and trustworthy sources in the State, inclines us to believe that it is not merely the Addicks forces that need to be purified, but the entire State. A trustworthy correspondent informs us that it is estimated that nearly one-half of all the votes in Delaware cast for the Republican ticket at the election last autumn were “coaxed into the ballot- box by cash,” and since there is pretty conclusive evidence showing that the Republicans alone spent at the polls at least $130,000, it will be seen that the estimate is not far out of the way. If the statements of reliable men may be ac- cepted, at least ninety-five per cent. of the negro voters demanded and got a money reward for their ballots. It is openly stated that in the counties of Kent and Sussex the anti-Addicks as well as the Addicks forces bought votes. Our cor- respondent assures us that “specific instances have been given. of fathers negotiating for their sons’ votes, and there is on record one case where a father drove from home his son because he would not sell the first vote he ever

ee arte ae

rare tae

ee eS OE Tee Pe

ee ee

762*

cast. The clergy for the most part are silent, and resolutions at church convoca- tions deploring bribery are frowned upon as an interference in politics.” The buying and selling of votes has almost assumed the dignity of legitimate trade among certain classes of the State. “Mr. A’s money elected you!” ex- claims one legislator to another. “No, it was the money of Mr. X,” is the reply. So that a man who constantly and loyal- ly votes for the candidate who bought him attains almost the position of a high-toned moralist among his fellows. It is, perhaps, some satisfaction to know that J. Edward Addicks has been again deprived of the attainment of his great ambition in life ; but his failure of elec- tion, instead of reflecting credit on Del- aware, only emphasizes the entire lack in that State of a genuine representative and popular government.

®

It has long been a con- ceded fact that building inspection in New York City has been wretchedly deficient. Whether this is due to bribery, to in- competence, or to insufficient laws may be an open question. Most people would attribute the blame to all three causes. When the notorious Budden- siek, years ago, put up buildings so flimsy that they fell down of their own weight and killed many people, he was indicted, tried, and imprisoned, and thereby a salutary warning was given to builders and inspectors. The evil in its worst aspects for a time decreased, but has gradually grown again to portentous dimensions. Last year a large unfin- ished building collapsed from structural weakness due to clear violation of the building law ; several persons were killed and many injured ; excitement ran high for a few weeks, but no one has actually suffered the penalty of lawbreaking. Last week no fewer than six flat-houses, partly or in some cases wholly com- pleted, collapsed, and photographs show the bricks clean of mortar, proving that the mortar was used when semi-frozen and incapable of holding bricks together. This is plainly forbidden by law. As no one was killed, it is only too likely

Jerry-Building in New York

The Outlook

[1 April

that the “rigid investigation promised by the Building Department will be with- out result. In response to the plea that there are not enough inspectors, District Attorney Jerome well says: “If there are not enough men, the remedy is not to allow unsafe buildings to go up, but to allow only as many as can be inspected properly with the present force. “If that ties up the business, well and good—the people wil] soon see that there are more inspectors.” Mr. Jerome adds signifi- cantly:

One or two other episodes in the Building Department recently Mr. Hopper [Building ETE Te might find difficult to ex- plain, if the Mayor had the power to file written charges against him, which he must answer. There was the attempt to. make aeney a 35-pound pressure [practical men say that this pressure is totally unneeded] flushing arrangement, when only one device on the market met. the requirement. There was a Similar attempt to put into general use a safety clutch for elevators, when there was only one of that kind on the market. There was the attempt to substitute a certain smoke test in plumbing, when all are about equally

ood. It might be awkward to explain that riends are interested in certain concerns. It is hoped that these charges, for they are really nothing else, will be looked into by the committee appointed by Mr. Ahearn, President of Manhattan Borough. It should also be explained why the inspector upon whom a Grand Jury placed part of the responsibility for the Darlington disaster is still on the city’s pay-roll, and why several inspect- ors passed as sound and safe the six buildings which tumbled down of their own weight last week. The danger to life and property from jerry-building is increasing every year, and the city’s oversight of builders must be clearéd of political chicanery and bribery.

@

The main idea of | the Tuskegee Conference is to get records of and stimulate land-buying, better house-build- ing, and better schools with longer terms ; to promote industrial and intellectual effi- ciency and the owning of property as the essentials of race progress. The keynote of the Hampton Conference for 1904, sounded in the report recently issued, is expressed in the motto, Deeds, not

The Hampton Negro Conference

1905]

words.” Those in charge of the Hamp- ton Conference became impressed in 1903 with the tendency to complain of evils rather than to do something to remedy them. Reports were made of bad conditions, but effort did not seem easily to follow. An attempt was there- fore made to arrange for committees who should not only report upon the facts pertaining to the life of the colored peo- ple, but should aim to do something effective towards bettering conditions and remedying evils; the committees dealt with such subjects as economic conditions, education, religion and morals, charities and correction, vital sanitary problems, and civic relations. These committees reported at the Con- ference of 1904 and made recommenda- tions as to matters which may be divided into two classes: first, acute conditions requiring immediate attention, such as the exporting of colored girls to Northern cities for immoral purposes, the excessive death-rate of colored people from tuber- culosis, immoral conditions in the county jails in Virginia; second, all conditions requiring gradual but persistent and pow- erful influence in order to better condi- tions, such as better insurance and saving facilities, better Sunday-schools, self-help in education, and the introduction of domestic science and manual training into the elementary schools. The re- ports are specially concerned with jails and poorhouses, Sunday-schools and social settlements, self-help in education, insurance methods, tuberculosis, legal oppression, considered in their relation to colored people living in the territory of Virginia and the larger cities near the boundary line of that State.

®

The resolutions resulting from the reports are of special interest. Upon vital and sani- tary problems it was resolved that public sentiment be aroused among the negroes through schools, churches, and by the organization of anti-tuberculosis societies in cities and towns. The Conference recommended the careful reading and distribution of the literature on the pre- vention of tuberculosis prepared by the Charity Organization Society of New

The Resolutions

The Week

763

York, and the enforcing of the anti-spit- ting laws in public buildings, sidewalks, and street-cars, as well as steam-cars and every other form of public conveyance ; touching education, the Conference rec- ommended greater interest on the part of the negroes in the education of their children, and earnest attempts to secure eight months of school each year, either by means, of the usual public funds or by private supplementing of public funds; also manual and industrial training in the public schools as an integral part of sound education. ‘Touching the matter of insurance, the Conference recom- mended careful study of the statistics of life and fraternal insurance, and the making of a mortuary table based on the experience of the insurance compa- nies and fraternal societies operated by the colored people. Concerning religion and morals the Conference recommended better teaching in the Sunday-schools and Sunday-school institutes in order to that end, and also that Sunday-schools and churches avail themselves of the methods used in social settlements. Con- cerning moral protection for the colored people, it was recommended that com- mittees be appointed to act in co-opera- tion with social settlement workers in Northern cities, and with law and order leagues and legal aid societies, in order to the combating of the evil of importing Southern colored girls to Northern cities for immoral purposes, and also to secure for poor but worthy people the protec- tion of their property rights. suggestion was also made in this con- nection, that churches and schools be urged to pay more attention to the in- struction of the people in the elementary principles of business and commercial law. With regard to charities and cor- rection, the Conference recommended the organization of negro charities in the cities and towns, and earnest co- operation with the white people in every attempt at the reformation of criminals and the improvement of jails and poor- houses ; also that an earnest attempt be made to create a public sentiment for better care of the defective classes in the ‘State of Virginia. The reports of the committees upon the subjects are espe- cially valuable, and are characterized by

A valuable -

CS ee Rs ee Ce

SENATE ESAT SE

764

faithful attention and accurate presenta- tion of the facts at issue, scientific dis- crimination, careful collating of statis- tics, and sanity and wisdom in the rec- ommendations, It is evident from the reports of the committees and from the utterances made that a great deal of work was done in the way of personal investigation and study in order to bring the reports into accurate conformity with the conditions considered, and in order to suggestions which would be likely to be effective of good results. The reports upon negro insurance, upon negro women and domestic service, upon charities and correction, and also upon the negro death rate, are fine examples of sociological investigation, and indicate a social per- spective as well as an attention to con- crete facts which promise great improve- ment in the moral and material condi- tions of those negroes whom Hampton must directly touch. The Conference of 1905 will discuss savings societies in Virginia, installment dealers and ne- groes, Sunday-schools in Virginia, city schools fot negroes, tuberculosis in Vir- ginia and neighboring cities, negro char- ities in Virginia, the exportation of col- ored girls to Northern cities, and reform movements,

®

The New The annual licensing Liquor License Law sessions in England,

= See called brewster ses- sions because of their relation to the trade of brewers and breweries, are now over for 1905, and from the proceedings it is possible to form some estimate as to how the Licensing Act of 1904 will work. The Act, which aroused so much hostility in Parliament and in the constituencies last. year, made radi- cal changes in the Licensing Code. Up to its enactment it was possible for the licensing bench to refuse the renewal of a license simply on the ground that there was no public need for the house for which a license was sought, When a license was so refused, no compensation was paid ‘ta the owner of the public- house which was closed. Under the new Act there is no interference with the old powers of the magistrates to refuse the renewal of a license on proof by the

The Outlook

[1 April

police that the house had been badly conducted and had become a danger to good order and a nuisance. The licenses of such houses can still be refused with- out compensation ; but in the case of a well-conducted house, which may be re- garded by the magistrates as unneces- sary, the renewal of the license cannot be refused without compensation. To facilitate reduction in the. number of licensed houses, of which by common agreement there is a redundancy in most of the older English towns, and to estab- lish a compensation fund, it is provided in the Act of 1904 that license-holders within the magisterial area shall each year contribute to a common fund from which compensation shall be paid when the licenses of well-conducted but un- necessary public-houses are refused at brewster sessions.

Manchester brewster sessions afford a good illustration of how the new Act-is working. Manchester, prior to the recent sessions, had 2,965 licensed houses—one for every 184 of its inhab- itants. The number has long been held by the magistrates to be altogether out of proportion to the needs of the popu- lation, and for years the magistrates have been weeding out all houses of proved bad character. At the recent sessions forty-two houses were closed for these reasons without compensation, and the magistrates announced that they in- tended: to schedule fifty more licenses for suppression under the compensation clauses of the Act of 1904. The assess- ments on license-holders in Manchester for 1905—which must be paid before October next—will yield about $150,000. This sum will be divided among the fifty license-holders whose houses have been scheduled. The city bench of magis- trates has not power to refuse these li- censes and award compensation. This power lies with magistrates in quarter sessions for the hundred of the county of [.ancashire, in which Manchester is situated. But although in the past mag- istrates in quarter sessions have not aided magistrates in the boroughs and cities in reducing licenses when appeals

A Concrete Example from Manchester

1905]

have been taken from the local benches to quarter sessions, as compensation to the license-holders will serve to mitigate the loss to the brewery companies and the retailers of drink, the likelihood is that now most benches of quarter session will accept the schedules of licenses to be quashed as sent to them. It is not likely that Manchester will ever have more than about $150,000 a year avail- able for compensation for license-holders, so that the number of licenses to be dropped this year may be taken as the maximum. Still, fifty houses closed in this way, plus forty closed for miscon- duct, is not a bad showing for one brew- ster sessions, and, despite some of the indefensible features of the Act of 1904, it should in the course of a few years work a reform in the English licensing system. ae @

An occasion for noteworthy utterances, significant of progress in religious fellow- ship and religious thought, was given at the recent enthronement of Dr. Gore as the first Bishop of Birmingham, England, a new diocese formed by division of the ancient diocese of Worcester, from which Dr. Gore was translated. At a mass- meeting in the Town Hall after the serv- ices in the Cathedral the most fraternal sentiments were cordially interchanged between Churchmen and Nonconform- ists. The Rev. J. H. Jowett, successor to the late Dr. R. W. Dale, whose friend and guest Bishop Gore had been, gave him the greetings of the Nonconformist churches in terms of manly and hearty esteem that were fully reciprocated, not only in the address of Dr. Gore, but in those of the Bishops of London, Man- chester, and Carlisle. Dr. Gore’s appre- ciation of Dr. Dale as “a man who seemed to represent ideally the combi- nation of the Christian prophet with the Christian citizen” was matched by Mr. Jowett’s appreciation of Dr. Gore’s “passion for social reform, and his ardor for securing the highest ideals in the government of the State.” As to schemes for the reunion of churches, Bishop Gore said that the Established Church must first attain unity within itself. But he _ -profoundly believed in two lines of union,

Bishop Gore of Birmingham

The Week

765

besides personal friendship, as immedi- ately practicable. One was fellowship in schemes of social and civic progress and righteousness; the other was the fellowship of common study. Referring to the inquiry now going on in different religious bodies into the basis of moral and religious truth on which they all stand, into the origin and meaning of Christianity, Bishop Gore desired, “as a humble scholar,” to bring together in such inquiries men of different points of view. “Iam quite sure,” said he, that we are in a time of transition, and that the lines both of union and division in the future are not altogether those which have prevailed in the past. It is in this freedom, in the fellowship of a common study of what our religion meahs, that I see the great forces of reunion in the future.” Other men have been thinking thus, but no one in so commanding a position as Bishop Gore has said it so plainly. Among men of sound learning in free communication sectarianism is impossible. An auspicious utterance is this for the inauguration of a new epis- copate. : &

Last month The Outlook printed a brief account of the friendly service of the Bible Teachers’ Training School in supplying hot coffee and luncheon to the men em- ployed on the New York Central Rail- road improvements. The attention of The Outlook has now been especially called to the somewhat similar service carried on systematically for several years in New York City by the Church Temperance Society. One of the ob- jects of this Society is the removal of the causes which lead to intemperance, and one of its efforts in this work is the maintenance of two coffee-vans. These vans are special!'y built one-horse deliv- ery-wagons, provided with insulated cyl- inders which hold about forty gallons of coffee, ready for drinking, and keep it hot for over twelve hours. One of these is called the Coachmen’s Coffee- Van, and follows an English custom, A hostess who is giving a large enter- tainment may order this van to be on hand to dispense hot coffee and sand- wiches to the coachmen who wait out-

Coffee on Wheels

766

side in the cold to convey her guests home. Another van, during the coldest nights of the year, stands by the loop at the New York Post-Office, where the motormen slacken up to return on the long uptown trip, each receiving before he starts off again, in the face of storm and wind, the welcome hot drink. By special request of the men, the van comes after midnight, the small hours of the morning being the ones they find coldest and weariest. This van is ready also to answer calls from the Fire Department. During all large fires, which keep the firemen on duty many hours, the van stands within the fire lines. Its presence was at first permitted by the Chief with misgivings, but it was found both to supply needed nourishment and to remove the tempta- tion to slip away to a saloon for a draught of stimulant. So useful has this been to the firemen that a year ago, dur- ing heavy storms, the Commissioner of Street-Cleaning sought the same aid for the snow-shovelers, shoveling all night in the bitter dark, some frostbitten from the cold and others incapacitating them- selves for further labor by indulgence at the nearest bar. Both vans, laden to their utmost with rolls and coffee, made their way from one gang of men to another through the nights of worst weather, and have repeated this service this past winter. The coachmen’s van is of course paid for by the hostesses, but the other vans are supported by the receipts from the Society’s lunch-wagons. The first lunch-wagon was established for the refreshment of men working at night, for whom no other place of food and drink was available save a saloon. So successful was The Owl that eight lunch-wagons are now stationed at points where shelter and food are demanded by night workers. Each represents the gift of a thousand dollars, and one, The Firefly,” at Union Square, has been en- dowed, and when worn out can be replaced. The Outlook has always been especially interested in constructive tem- perance work, and believes that lunch- wagons and coffee-vans such as these are an important factor in solving the liquor problem. If there are similar practical efforts made in other cities to

The Outlook |

[1 April

promote temperance, we should be glad to be informed of them.

& ppoee The Copley Society of Bos- otape ton a year ago exhibited Pere ee a wonderful collection of Whistler’s paintings, of which The

Outlook gave its readers a brief account. This year it has brought together ninety- five examples of the work of the great French impressionist Claude Monet, ranging in date from 1875 to 1903. It is not extravagant to say that no other painter has everequaled Monet in painting atmosphere. It is not, perhaps, strange that most men think of atmosphere as unpaintable, since it is only compara- tively recently that artists have attempted to paint it. Perhaps the most striking— we do not say the best—illustration of this phase of art in the Boston collection is Morning Fog” (1888). There is an impression of water in the foreground and—nothing else? That is the first im- pression. Vague, undefined forms loom up in the background, veiled, indistinct, indistinguishable. What are they? asks the observer. And he can as little tell as he could tell from the deck of a yacht on the coast of Maine what were the formless forms over against him—cliffs ? trees? masts of another ship? or only a darker cloud in the fog? More beauti- ful illustrations of atmospheric effect, and scarcely less wonderful, are the Thames series—the Bridges and the Par- liament Houses (1903). As one looks steadily at one of this series the omni- buses on the bridge gradually appear, much as they would gradually shape themselves through a London fog, visible only as the eye grew accustomed to the atmosphere. Another characteristic of Monet, though less distinctively his, is his enjoyment in mere color. Some of his pictures appear to us wholly unreal— the view of the painter’s own garden in the Serie du Bassin aux Nympheas” (1899) for example; but the color, simply as color, is exquisitely beautiful. It is interesting to trace the historical develop- ment ofhisart. ‘La Seine & Lavacour” (1880) and Sunset on the Seine, Win- ter” (1880) are beautiful pictures; but | there is nothing in either to suggest the |

1905] Mr. Rockefeller and marvelous mystery in the Morning Fog” and the Thames series. Stu- dents and lovers of Monet’s pictures are indebted to him not only for much esthetic pleasure derived from his paint- ings themselves, but for the greater pleasure and benefit of being enabled by a patient study of his canvases to see beautiful color effects in the natural landscape that have never been apparent before. It is astonishing how the most commonplace scenes—scraggly trees, weedy fields, swampy puddles, bare and desolate stretches of rock—are trans- formed into patches of delightful beauty by the color effects of sun and atmos- phere which the Impressionist School,” led and inspired by Monet, has taught the observer to seek for and find in nature. For this reason alone art lovers will find it well worth a journcy to Boston to see and study this notable collection.

@

Perhaps no writer of our day has given more innocent pleasure to a larger number of readers than Jules Verne, who died on Friday of last week at his home in Amiens. M. Verne was wont to say that the in- spiration of his literary career had been found in the immortal works of Baron Munchausen; but if his tales were as marvelous in. their way as those of Mun- chausen, they differed radically in that the wonders which Jules Verne built up with such remarkable ingenuity and in- ventiveness were always consistent, and, for the moment at least, reasonable. He cannot be ranked with the great novel- ists of French literature, because he had little pretension to style or literary artis- try; yet his method of writing was so direct, so clear, and so forcible that it was in itself not inartistic. M. Verne was an adept in using the actual achieve- ments of science and discovery to forecast the possibilities of the future. Those of his stories which deal with ballooning, with submarine -vessels, or with rapid traveling have been in some degree real- ized in actual fact since they were written. Since he wrote Around the World in Eighty Days,” for instance, the journey has been made in much less time; and although - his fictitious voyages to the

jules Verne

767

center of the earth and from the earth to the moon may never be realized, the books describing these voyages contain some clever suggestions for future scien- tists. As a story-teller M. Verne has always been the delight of boys, but his books have been almost equally appreciated by older readers. He was never chosen a member of the French Academy, and the failure of his candi- dacy was attributed to the fact that members of the Academy held that his books were not really literature or his characters more than puppets.

®

Mr. Rockefeller and the

American Board

Certain Congregational ministers of Boston and vicinity have passed a reso- lution protesting against the acceptance by the American Board of the gift of $100,000 proffered to the Board, for its work, by Mr. John D. Rockefeller. The ground of this protest is that “the accept- ance of such a gift involves the constitu- ents of the Board in a relation implying honor to the donor, and subjects the Board to the charge of ignoring the moral issues involved,” in what the protest describes as repeated and formidable indictments in specific terms for methods which are morally iniquitous and socially destruc- tive.” Similar action was, we believe,

the American Board

proposed in the meeting of the Congre- -

gational ministers of New York and vicinity, but after full discussion it was decided that the protest should not be made, although a considerable number of ministers were individually opposed to the acceptance of Mr. Rockefeller’s gift. In a Church organized iike the Pres- byterian, the ministers can in their offi- cial capacity bring the action of the Board of Missions before the Synod or Assembly for review ; but in the Congre- gational Church the Missionary Society is organically independent. From its action no formal appeal lies. _ It is, there- fore, entirely proper for the ministers, either individually or in groups; to: pro- test against any action which, in their judgment, would be inconsistent ‘with

768

right principles. For this reason we commend the course of the Boston min- isters in making their protest. They were quite within their rights in doing so. And the sentiment which animated their protest is praiseworthy. It indicates a